Invasion inhibition effects and immunogenicity after vaccination of SPF chicks with a Salmonella Enteritidis live vaccine
Meat and eggs from chickens infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis are considered to be an important source of Salmonella infections for humans.
In order to control Salmonella infections in chickens, basic biosecurity measures are taken in combination with inactivated or attenuated live vaccines. Apart from an adaptive immune response, some live vaccines also induce innate immune mechanisms that prevent or inhibit systemic invasion with homologous Salmonella serovars.
It is unknown whether these invasion inhibition effects are also directed against heterologous Salmonella serovars.
Furthermore, it is unclear whether the adaptive immune response after vaccination with a Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 live vaccine is also directed against other phage types of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium.
Material and methods
Specific pathogen-free day-old chicks were vaccinated orally with a commercially available Salmonella Enteritidis live vaccine. To test the invasion inhibition effect, the animals were challenged orally with a labelled Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Infantis strain 1 day after vaccination. To demonstrate the adaptive immune response against non-phage type 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strains and a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain, the chickens were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis strains of phage types 1, 8 and 21 and a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain (Definitive Type 193).
After challenge, the abundance of the challenge strain in liver and cecal tissue was enumerated and compared with a corresponding control group.
Findings showed that the live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine inhibits systemic invasion after early infection with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis. Furthermore, adaptive immunity against the tested non-phage type 4 Sal- monella Enteritidis strains and the monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain was demonstrated.
Conclusion and clinical
relevance The results of this study demonstrate that vaccination with the Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 live vaccine significantly inhibits the invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium and Infantis. Furthermore, an adap- tive immune response was also detected against non-phage type 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strains and a monophasic Salmo- nella Typhimurium strain.
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