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Campylobacter is one of the top four global causes of diarrhea-related illnesses and is considered the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in the world. Campylobacteriosis is considered to be a zoonosis, meaning it is a disease that can be transmitted to humans directly by animals or indirectly via by-products of animal origin.
Food accounts for 80% of zoonosis transmissions.
Given the scope of the problem, somehow it should be contemplated in the legislation with a note on this microorganism.
Regulation (EC) n ° 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of January 28, 2002, establishes the general principles and requirements of food law.
Directive 2003/99 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 17, 2003, on the surveillance of zoonoses and zoonotic agents.
Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004, relating to the hygiene of food products.
Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 of November 15, 2005.
Two countries specifically have tried to reduce the presence of the bacterium by implementing biosecurity measures, Great Britain and the Netherlands. The results have not been satisfactory and the cost of production of the birds has increased.
Family Campylobacteriaceae, Genus Campylobacter, with 17 species and 8 subspecies. Spiral-shaped Bacillus, curved, Gram negative, it has a polar flagellum in one or both poles that gives it mobility, facilitating intestinal invasion. Involved in pathology due to the production of endotoxins, cytotoxins.
Today there are commercial and highly efficient means and solutions available to create microaerophilic conditions, making it easy to analyze and detect Campylobacter spp.. Some traditional culture media are: BOLTON, PRESTON, SKIRROW, Mccda, KARMALI.
Typical colonies of these media can be recultivated in chromogenic (commercial) media or subjected to microscopic examination where spiral shape and mobility can be seen.
Also note that the HIPPURATE hydrolysis test is only positive for C.jejuni.
Finally, fairly accurate PCR techniques can detect living DNA (reverse transcriptase).
In old cultures or stressful situations, it takes on a non-cultivable cocoid form, which allows it to survive in food or other habitats without multiplying.
In birds, C.jejuni is the most widespread species. For pigs, it’s C. coli and in cattle C. fetus. Additionally, we cam also detect Campylobacter spp. in water bodies near the farms.
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